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WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 22.07.2024 11.40 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jul 22 1139 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jul 22 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 22.07.2024 09.44 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 22 0926 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 536 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G2 Predicted
Issued: 22.07.2024 06.26 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G2 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jul 22: None (Below G1) Jul 23: None (Below G1) Jul 24: G2 (Moderate)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

CANCEL WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Publié: 21.07.2024 18.05 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Cancel Serial Number: 1004
Original Issue Time: 2024 Jul 18 1845 UTC

Comment: G1 (Minor) conditions are no longer anticipated.

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Publié: 19.07.2024 18.16 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 19 1801 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jul 19 1802 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jul 19 1803 UTC
Duration: 2 minutes
Peak Flux: 470 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 209 sfu
Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Publié: 18.07.2024 18.45 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jul 19: None (Below G1) Jul 20: None (Below G1) Jul 21: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Publié: 17.07.2024 07.58 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 17 0722 UTC
Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Publié: 17.07.2024 07.20 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 17 0700 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 334 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Publié: 17.07.2024 07.14 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 17 0626 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jul 17 0639 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jul 17 0701 UTC
X-ray Class: M5.0
Optical Class: 2b
Location: S08W30
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Publié: 17.07.2024 07.02 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 17 0641 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 389 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Publié: 17.07.2024 06.55 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 17 0634 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jul 17 0635 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jul 17 0637 UTC
Duration: 3 minutes
Peak Flux: 560 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 242 sfu
Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Publié: 17.07.2024 06.41 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jul 17 0638 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Publié: 16.07.2024 23.05 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 16 2220 UTC
Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Publié: 16.07.2024 22.30 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 16 2208 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 633 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Publié: 16.07.2024 14.09 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 16 1338 UTC
Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Publié: 16.07.2024 13.59 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 16 1321 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 516 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Publié: 16.07.2024 13.46 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 16 1311 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jul 16 1326 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jul 16 1336 UTC
X-ray Class: X1.9
Location: S05W85
NOAA Scale: R3 - Strong

Potential Impacts: Area of impact consists of large portions of the sunlit side of Earth, strongest at the sub-solar point.
Radio - Wide area blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for about an hour.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Publié: 16.07.2024 13.40 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 16 1318 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jul 16 1320 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jul 16 1326 UTC
Duration: 8 minutes
Peak Flux: 550 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 233 sfu
Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Publié: 16.07.2024 13.23 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jul 16 1320 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Publié: 14.07.2024 03.03 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded X1
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 14 0233 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jul 14 0234 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jul 14 0248 UTC
X-ray Class: X1.2
Location: S09W40
NOAA Scale: R3 - Strong

Potential Impacts: Area of impact consists of large portions of the sunlit side of Earth, strongest at the sub-solar point.
Radio - Wide area blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for about an hour.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Publié: 14.07.2024 02.51 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 14 0231 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jul 14 0232 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jul 14 0235 UTC
Duration: 4 minutes
Peak Flux: 380 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 238 sfu
Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Publié: 14.07.2024 02.34 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jul 14 0233 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Publié: 13.07.2024 23.30 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 13 2244 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jul 13 2301 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jul 13 2312 UTC
X-ray Class: M5.0
Location: S09W40
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Publié: 13.07.2024 23.04 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jul 13 2302 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Publié: 13.07.2024 13.25 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 13 1221 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jul 13 1242 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jul 13 1258 UTC
X-ray Class: M5.3
Location: S07W41
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Publié: 13.07.2024 12.57 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 13 1242 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 295 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Publié: 13.07.2024 12.41 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jul 13 1237 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Publié: 11.07.2024 00.05 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jul 12: None (Below G1) Jul 13: G1 (Minor) Jul 14: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Publié: 04.07.2024 20.30 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 04 2007 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 387 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Publié: 04.07.2024 15.28 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 04 1427 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 815 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Publié: 03.07.2024 18.59 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jul 03 1840 UTC
Station: GOES16

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Publié: 03.07.2024 09.03 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2024 Jul 03 0742 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 1254 km/s
Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Publié: 01.07.2024 18.26 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jul 02: None (Below G1) Jul 03: G1 (Minor) Jul 04: None (Below G1)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Publié: 30.06.2024 17.14 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 30 1710 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 30 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Publié: 29.06.2024 08.59 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4642
Valid From: 2024 Jun 27 2153 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 29 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Publié: 28.06.2024 20.54 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4641
Valid From: 2024 Jun 27 2153 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 29 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Publié: 28.06.2024 20.54 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1893
Valid From: 2024 Jun 28 0150 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 29 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Publié: 28.06.2024 19.15 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 28 1915 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Publié: 28.06.2024 15.22 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 28 1520 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 8, 9-
Publié: 28.06.2024 14.18 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 8, 9-
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 28 1415 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G4 - Severe

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 45 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Possible widespread voltage control problems and some protective systems may mistakenly trip out key assets from the power grid. Induced pipeline currents intensify.
Spacecraft - Systems may experience surface charging; increased drag on low earth orbit satellites, and tracking and orientation problems may occur.
Navigation - Satellite navigation (GPS) degraded or inoperable for hours.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation sporadic or blacked out.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as Alabama and northern California.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Publié: 28.06.2024 13.35 UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 530
Valid From: 2024 Jun 28 1135 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 28 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 7
Publié: 28.06.2024 13.28 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 7
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 28 1327 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G3 - Strong

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 50 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power system voltage irregularities possible, false alarms may be triggered on some protection devices.
Spacecraft - Systems may experience surface charging; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites and orientation problems may occur.
Navigation - Intermittent satellite navigation (GPS) problems, including loss-of-lock and increased range error may occur.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio may be intermittent.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as Pennsylvania to Iowa to Oregon.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 7 or greater expected
Publié: 28.06.2024 13.24 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 7 or greater expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 28 1325 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 28 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G3 or greater

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 50 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power system voltage irregularities possible, false alarms may be triggered on some protection devices.
Spacecraft - Systems may experience surface charging; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites and orientation problems may occur.
Navigation - Intermittent satellite navigation (GPS) problems, including loss-of-lock and increased range error may occur.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio may be intermittent.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as Pennsylvania to Iowa to Oregon.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Publié: 28.06.2024 13.11 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 28 1310 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Publié: 28.06.2024 12.21 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 28 1220 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Publié: 28.06.2024 11.47 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 28 1147 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0900-1200 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Publié: 28.06.2024 11.36 UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 28 1135 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 28 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Publié: 28.06.2024 11.36 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1892
Valid From: 2024 Jun 28 0150 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 28 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Publié: 28.06.2024 11.36 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4640
Valid From: 2024 Jun 27 2153 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 28 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Publié: 28.06.2024 11.25 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 28 1125 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0900-1200 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Publié: 28.06.2024 09.26 UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 28 1005 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 28 1035 UTC
IP Shock Passage Observed: 2024 Jun 28 0912 UTC

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Publié: 28.06.2024 05.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4639
Valid From: 2024 Jun 27 2153 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 28 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Publié: 28.06.2024 05.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1891
Valid From: 2024 Jun 28 0150 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 28 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Publié: 28.06.2024 02.21 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 28 0202 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Publié: 28.06.2024 01.51 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 28 0150 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 28 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Publié: 27.06.2024 21.54 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 27 2153 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 28 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Publié: 26.06.2024 11.06 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Jun 27: None (Below G1) Jun 28: G1 (Minor) Jun 29: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Publié: 26.06.2024 10.32 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 26 1032 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 26 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Publié: 25.06.2024 16.28 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 25 1630 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 25 2200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Publié: 23.06.2024 20.56 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4635
Valid From: 2024 Jun 23 1030 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2024 Jun 24 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Publié: 23.06.2024 13.26 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2024 Jun 23 1251 UTC
Maximum Time: 2024 Jun 23 1301 UTC
End Time: 2024 Jun 23 1311 UTC
X-ray Class: M9.3
Location: S18E70
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Publié: 23.06.2024 13.02 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2024 Jun 23 1257 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Publié: 23.06.2024 10.28 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2024 Jun 23 1030 UTC
Valid To: 2024 Jun 23 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

Table

Date Radio flux 10.7 cm SESC Le nombre des taches solaires Tache de la zone 10E-6 De nouvelles régions GOES15 X-ray Bkgd flux éclairs
X-ray Optique
C M X S 1 2 3
22nd June 2024 196 139 2550 0 * 7 3 0 21 3 0 0
23rd June 2024 196 176 1750 4 * 8 3 0 17 2 0 0
24th June 2024 199 141 1340 0 * 5 5 0 13 2 0 0
25th June 2024 194 129 780 2 * 3 1 0 8 0 0 0
26th June 2024 181 135 850 1 * 2 0 0 3 0 0 0
27th June 2024 183 146 820 1 * 12 0 0 5 0 0 0
28th June 2024 181 162 1320 2 * 8 0 0 10 0 0 0
29th June 2024 186 205 1250 3 * 7 0 0 2 0 0 0
30th June 2024 174 199 1150 0 * 7 0 0 6 0 0 0
1st July 2024 171 192 880 0 * 8 1 0 12 1 0 0
2nd July 2024 164 192 690 0 * 11 0 0 1 0 0 0
3rd July 2024 167 182 670 1 * 6 1 0 7 2 0 0
4th July 2024 173 113 730 1 * 6 2 0 5 0 0 0
5th July 2024 166 111 990 1 * 9 0 0 4 0 0 0
6th July 2024 166 132 870 2 * 6 1 0 14 0 0 0
7th July 2024 171 119 650 1 * 8 5 0 18 0 0 0
8th July 2024 169 95 470 1 * 16 1 0 15 0 0 0
9th July 2024 180 143 570 2 * 7 0 0 13 0 0 0
10th July 2024 214 190 1270 1 * 7 5 0 19 3 0 0
11th July 2024 205 188 1440 2 * 5 2 0 11 3 0 0
12th July 2024 210 162 1740 1 * 5 0 0 10 0 0 0
13th July 2024 238 214 1960 3 * 5 6 0 17 2 1 0
14th July 2024 234 217 2050 1 * 12 4 1 34 3 0 0
15th July 2024 233 205 1890 2 * 5 3 0 20 1 0 0
16th July 2024 242 250 1540 3 * 3 4 1 7 6 0 0
17th July 2024 224 275 1190 2 * 4 5 0 11 1 1 0
18th July 2024 209 276 1230 1 * 12 2 0 20 1 0 0
19th July 2024 202 269 1040 1 * 6 3 0 16 2 1 0
20th July 2024 207 212 1160 1 * 8 2 0 20 2 0 0
21st July 2024 198 200 1360 0 * 15 4 0 15 1 0 0
Moyenne/Total 194 179 1207 40 223 63 2 374 35 3 0

Graphique de synthèse

éclairs

Solar wind

Solar Wind

The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in density, temperature, and speed over time and over solar longitude. These particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy, from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena in it.

The solar wind is divided into two components, respectively termed the slow solar wind and the fast solar wind. The slow solar wind has a velocity of about 400 km/s, a temperature of 1.4–1.6×10e6 K and a composition that is a close match to the corona. By contrast, the fast solar wind has a typical velocity of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×10e5 K and it nearly matches the composition of the Sun's photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as dense and more variable in intensity than the fast solar wind. The slow wind also has a more complex structure, with turbulent regions and large-scale structures.

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) is an excellent indicator of solar activity. Often called the F10.7 index, it is one of the longest running records of solar activity. The F10.7 radio emissions originates high in the chromosphere and low in the corona of the solar atmosphere. The F10.7 correlates well with the sunspot number as well as a number of UltraViolet (UV) and visible solar irradiance records. Reported in “solar flux units”, (s.f.u.), the F10.7 can vary from below 50 s.f.u., to above 300 s.f.u., over the course of a solar cycle.

Flares

Flares

A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 10e25 joules of energy. They are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection. The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona of the sun into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event.

Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), when the plasma medium is heated to tens of millions of kelvin, while the electrons, protons, and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy is spread over frequencies outside the visual range and for this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. The same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections (CME), although the relation between CMEs and flares is still not well established.

The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year cycle (the solar cycle). Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones.

Classification

Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (in watts per square metre, W/m2) of 100 to 800 picometre X-rays near Earth, as measured on the GOES spacecraft.

Classification Peak Flux Range at 100-800 picometer
W/m2
A < 10e-7
B 10e-7 to 10e-6
C 10e-6 to 10e-5
M 10e-5 to 10e-4
X 10e-4 to 10e-3
Z > 10e-3

An earlier flare classification is based on Hα spectral observations. The scheme uses both the intensity and emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring to the flares as: (f)aint, (n)ormal or (b)rilliant. The emitting surface is measured in terms of millionths of the hemisphere and is described below. (The total hemisphere area AH = 6.2 × 1012 km2.)

Classification Corrected area
(millionths of hemisphere)
S < 100
1 100 - 250
2 250 - 600
3 600 - 1200
4 > 1200

Sunspot number

Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They correspond to concentrations of magnetic field that inhibit convection and result in reduced surface temperature compared to the surrounding photosphere. Sunspots usually appear in pairs, with pair members of opposite magnetic polarity. The number of sunspots varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.

Sunspot populations quickly rise and more slowly fall on an irregular cycle of 11 years, although significant variations in the number of sunspots attending the 11-year period are known over longer spans of time. For example, from 1900 to the 1960s, the solar maxima trend of sunspot count has been upward; from the 1960s to the present, it has diminished somewhat. Over the last decades the Sun has had a markedly high average level of sunspot activity; it was last similarly active over 8,000 years ago.

The number of sunspots correlates with the intensity of solar radiation over the period since 1979, when satellite measurements of absolute radiative flux became available. Since sunspots are darker than the surrounding photosphere it might be expected that more sunspots would lead to less solar radiation and a decreased solar constant. However, the surrounding margins of sunspots are brighter than the average, and so are hotter; overall, more sunspots increase the Sun's solar constant or brightness. The variation caused by the sunspot cycle to solar output is relatively small, on the order of 0.1% of the solar constant (a peak-to-trough range of 1.3 W/m2 compared to 1366 W/m2 for the average solar constant).

K-indices



Aujourd’hui


0h
UTC
3h
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6h
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9h
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12h
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15h
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18h
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21h
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2. 00 1. 33 2.



Data


Estimated Planetary

Estimated Planetary

Date A K-indices (UTC)
0h 3h 6h 9h 12h 15h 18h 21h
23rd June 2024 10 1. 33 1. 67 2.
24th June 2024 5 1. 67 1. 33 0.
25th June 2024 9 1. 67 1. 33 2.
26th June 2024 9 1. 67 1. 67 2.
27th June 2024 9 2. 00 1. 67 1.
28th June 2024 59 4. 33 4. 33 3.
29th June 2024 14 4. 33 2. 67 2.
30th June 2024 11 2. 67 2. 67 1.
1st July 2024 6 1. 67 1. 67 2.
2nd July 2024 5 1. 33 1. 67 1.
3rd July 2024 5 2. 00 1. 33 2.
4th July 2024 10 2. 00 2. 33 1.
5th July 2024 8 2. 33 2. 67 1.
6th July 2024 3 1. 00 1. 00 0.
7th July 2024 8 2. 00 1. 67 1.
8th July 2024 10 2. 33 2. 33 2.
9th July 2024 6 2. 00 2. 00 1.
10th July 2024 6 2. 00 1. 67 1.
11th July 2024 6 2. 33 1. 67 1.
12th July 2024 5 2. 33 1. 67 2.
13th July 2024 4 1. 33 1. 00 1.
14th July 2024 5 1. 00 1. 00 1.
15th July 2024 7 1. 33 1. 67 1.
16th July 2024 10 3. 33 2. 00 2.
17th July 2024 5 1. 33 1. 67 2.
18th July 2024 5 1. 00 1. 00 1.
19th July 2024 5 1. 00 1. 33 1.
20th July 2024 7 2. 33 2. 00 2.
21st July 2024 5 1. 67 1. 00 1.
22nd July 2024 8 2. 00 1. 33 2.

Middle Latitude

Date A K-indices
23rd June 2024 12 1 2 3 3 4 2 3 2
24th June 2024 7 2 0 0 2 3 3 2 2
25th June 2024 9 1 1 3 3 2 3 2 1
26th June 2024 8 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 1
27th June 2024 11 2 2 1 2 3 3 3 3
28th June 2024 32 3 4 3 5 6 4 4 3
29th June 2024 11 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2
30th June 2024 10 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 2
1st July 2024 5 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1
2nd July 2024 6 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 2
3rd July 2024 6 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
4th July 2024 10 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 3
5th July 2024 10 3 3 2 3 3 2 1 1
6th July 2024 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
7th July 2024 7 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 3
8th July 2024 11 2 2 2 3 4 2 2 2
9th July 2024 8 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2
10th July 2024 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2
11th July 2024 7 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
12th July 2024 7 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2
13th July 2024 6 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 1
14th July 2024 9 1 1 1 3 3 2 3 2
15th July 2024 8 1 1 2 1 3 2 2 3
16th July 2024 12 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 2
17th July 2024 7 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 1
18th July 2024 4 0 0 1 2 2 1 2 1
19th July 2024 5 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2
20th July 2024 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2
21st July 2024 9 0 1 0 3 3 2 4 2
22nd July 2024 2 2 2 3 3 2

High Latitude

Date A K-indices
23rd June 2024 13 1 2 3 5 3 2 2 1
24th June 2024 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 1
25th June 2024 13 2 2 5 3 2 3 1 1
26th June 2024 12 1 1 2 4 4 3 2 1
27th June 2024 6 2 1 1 0 3 2 2 2
28th June 2024 36 4 4 4 6 5 4 4 4
29th June 2024 19 4 2 2 4 4 4 3 3
30th June 2024 17 3 2 2 3 4 5 2 2
1st July 2024 14 2 3 4 4 3 3 1 1
2nd July 2024 4 2 2 1 0 2 0 1 1
3rd July 2024 3 2 2 1 0 1 0 1 1
4th July 2024 15 2 2 2 1 4 5 3 1
5th July 2024 7 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
6th July 2024 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1
7th July 2024 5 2 2 2 0 1 1 2 2
8th July 2024 14 3 2 2 5 3 2 2 2
9th July 2024 9 2 2 1 4 3 1 1 1
10th July 2024 5 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1
11th July 2024 4 1 2 2 0 1 1 1 1
12th July 2024 6 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1
13th July 2024 2 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1
14th July 2024 2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
15th July 2024 3 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 2
16th July 2024 8 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 2
17th July 2024 7 1 3 2 2 3 2 1 0
18th July 2024 4 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 0
19th July 2024 3 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
20th July 2024 7 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 1
21st July 2024 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1
22nd July 2024 2 2 3 5 4 3

About

The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm. It is derived from the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer during a three-hour interval. The label K comes from the German word Kennziffer meaning “characteristic digit”. The K-index was introduced by Julius Bartels in 1938.

The Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp-index is derived at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center using data from the following ground-based magnetometers:

  • Sitka, Alaska
  • Meanook, Canada
  • Ottawa, Canada
  • Fredericksburg, Virginia
  • Hartland, UK
  • Wingst, Germany
  • Niemegk, Germany
  • Canberra, Australia

These data are made available thanks to the cooperative efforts between SWPC and data providers around the world, which currently includes the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), the British Geological Survey, the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), and Geoscience Australia. Important magnetometer observations are also contributed by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and the Korean Space Weather Center K-index Watches are issued when the highest predicted NOAA estimated Kp-indices for a day are K = 5, 6, 7, or >= 8 and is reported in terms of the NOAA G scale. K-index Warnings are issued when NOAA estimated Kp-indices of 4, 5, 6, and 7 or greater are expected. K-index Alerts are issued when the NOAA estimated Kp-indices reach 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.


More info
Source de données: NOAA, Wikipedia

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